The Legal Definition of a "Dollar"(& Its Importance to You)
[Editor's Note: This is a blockbuster story. The following letter was sent to me on Dec. 28, 2007. It contained information supplied by the office of Nevada U.S. Senator John Ensign sent to the head of the Independent American Party in Nevada, Christopher Hansen. Hansen persisted in persuading Senator Ensign's office to petition the Congressional Research Service to provide a precise, legal definition of the word "dollar."
On September 17, 2007, the government had failed to obtain even one conviction among 161 indictments leveled against Las Vegas contractor Robert Kahre (and other associates) who was paying his employees with gold and silver coins, rather than Federal Reserve Notes. It seems that the Las Vegas Review Journal was the only national publication to report on this important trial. However, it was difficult to find their on-line article, as I kept having trouble pulling up their web site on my computer. Eventually, I found the article in archives and re-posted it at this link (http://educate-yourself.org/cn/noconvictionsrobertkahreLVreviewjournal20sep07.shtml)
As you know, a Federal Reserve Note is self-identified as "legal tender" and a "promissory note." The public may call it "money', but the government calls it "legal tender." As you will discover below, there's a reason for that clever obfuscation and you may be surprised to learn what the court's own reference law dictionaries have to say about the definition of a "dollar" Again and again, the law dictionaries define a dollar as being composed of 100 cents and CANNOT be defined as " PROMISSARY NOTES, bonds, or other evidences of debt". The implications of this last statement should give you much to ponder.
Mr. Ken Adachi
P.O. Box 3046
Costa Mesa, CA 92628
Re: Subject of "Money" Finally Dermed
Dear Mr. Adachi:
I would prefer my identity be kept between us; however, to the extent you feel it appropriate to the "Educate-Yourself' web site, feel free to share the information contained herein.
As a matter of some brief background, there are some very interesting and current issues which make up your web site. So long as the concept is for people to educate themselves, perhaps they would be interested in what has become of money in the United States. There are many who recognize that Congress has indeed set up a dual monetary system; we have silver and god coin for which one pays a premium for the metal content (i.e. a $1.00 Silver Liberty is money, and while it would cost at least $14.00 at silver's current bullion value, the face value of the coin is all it is worth in a grocery store. The same is true of gold coins) and we have paper, issued by the Federal Reserve, which is what we all use as a medium of exchange, and with which we are all typically paid with when we get a paycheck.
As a matter of determining the actual values, and being given accurate credit for, as well as attempting to remain in compliance with Campaign Contribution Reporting laws, the head of the Independent American Party in Nevada, Christopher Hansen, has been attempting to determine precisely what "money" is, in legal terms. He has written dozens of letters to various government personnel, as well as those not in government, i.e. the director, chairman and heads of Federal Reserve Banks in order to get an answer.
Recently, at his written request, Nevada Senator John Ensign, enlisted the help of the Congressional Research Service, to get an answer to Mr. Hansen's legitimate inquiry. It is that information which is enclosed. In the form of an email to the Independent American Party
continuants, Mr. Hansen provided the following:
1. A letter from the offices of US Senator John Ensign responding to the inquiry; and, more
2. The 2 page report prepared by the Congressional Research Service, enclosed to Mr. Hansen
from the Senator's office, in response to Hansen's request for the legal definition of "money."
I reach no conclusions here, other than to provide copies of the information sent to Mr. Hansen in response to his inquiry upon a US Senator. If your Educate-Yourself web site is truly designed to have people educate themselves, the issues contained therein, while vitally important, should also educate the American people regarding what is and what is not money; so the confusion regarding the two may finally cease.
Should you desire to post this, scan it and add a link to your web site, it is now public information and should be disseminated to educate the American people. Should you decide the post the information, I applaud your efforts to truly educate the people, and thank you for your attention to the above and enclosed.
I would appreciate anonymity in this regard, as these are not my opinions, but those of a US Senator in response to an inquiry raised by a recognized and duly chartered political party. All contact information for Mr. Hansen, is contained herewith, as well as the colored links which all work. If you would like the item emailed to your so as to be able to use the links to check the
information yomself, please let me know. Thank you again to the above and enclosures, and if you have any questions or comments, please feel free to contact me.
[name withheld by request]
Enclosed As Stated:
1.Email from Christopher Hansen, 12/21/2007
2. Letter from Ms. Mason, Senator Ensign's Staff, 12/18/2007
Report Enclosed by Senator's Ensign's office from Congressional Research Service
Mr. Christopher Hansen
2657 Windmill Parkway, #107
Henderson, Nevada 89074
Dear Mr. Hansen:
Thank you for contacting Senator John Ensign's office with your request for the legal definition of a dollar. After contacting the Congressional Research Service with your request, they have directed me to a report that explains the definition of a dollar flom the 1856 edition of the Bouvier's Law Dictionary,to the 1986 edition of Black's Law, Second Pocket Edition, and explained that the definition of a dollar is actually quite fluid. I have enclosed that report, and I hope it will be of help to you.
When we spoke on the phone, you also mentioned that your question was related to campaign contributions. CRS suggested that you study the Federal Election Campaign Act which can be found at the website, www.fec.gov.
If this office can assist you with another federal matter, please do not hesitate to
Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1856 Edition
DOLLAR, money. A silver coin of the United States of the value of one hundred cents, or tenth part of an eagle.
2. It weighs four hundred and twelve and a half grains. Of one thousand parts, nine hundred are of pure silver and one hundred of alloy. Act of January 18, 1837, ss. 8 & 9, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2523, 4; wright, R. 162.
3. In all computations at the custom-house, the specie dollar of Sweden and Norway shall be estimated at one hundred and six cents. The specie dollar of Denmark, at one hundred and-five cents. Act of May 22, 1846.
CENT, money. A copper coin of the United States of the value of ten mills; ten of them are equal to a dime, and one hundred, to one dollar. Each cent is required to contain one hundred and sixty-eight grains. Act of January 18th, 1837~' 4 Sharsw. cont..of Story',s L. U. S. 2524.
Blacks Law Dictionary, 1st Edition (1891)
DOLLAR. The unit employed in the United States in calculating money values. It is coined both in gold and silver, and is of the value of one hundred cents.
CENT. A coin of the United States, the least in va1ue of those now minted. It is the hundredth part of a dollar. Its weight is 72 gr., and it is composed of copper and nickel in the- ratio of 88 to 12.
Blacks Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition (1933)
DOLLAR. The unit employed in the United States in calculating money values. It is coined both 1n gold and silver, and is of the value of one hundred cents. Thompson v. State, 90 Rex. Cr. R. 125, 234 S. W. 406, 408.
Blacks Law Dictionary, 4th Edition (1951)
DOLLAR. The -unit employed in the United States in calculating money values. It is coined both in-gold and silver, and is of the value of one hundred cents. People v. Alba 46 Cal.App.2d 859, 11.7 P.2d 63. Money or currency issued by lawful authority and intended .to pass and circulated as such. Neufield v. United States, 118 f,2d 375, 387, 73 App.D.C. 1.74. The dollar of nine-tenths fine consisting of the weight determined under the 31. U.S.C.A. A§ 321, shall be the standard unit of value, and all forms of money issued or coined shall be maintained at a parity of value with this standard. 31 U.S.C.A. AS 31.4.
Blacks Law Dictionary, 4th Edition Revised (1957)
DOLLAR. The unit employed in the United States in calculating money values. It is of the value of' 100 cents. People v. Alba, 46 Cal.App.2d 859, 11.7 P.2d_63. Money or currency issued by lawful authority and intended to pass and circulated as such. Neufield v. United States, 118 f,2d 375, 387, 73 App.D.C. 1.74.
Blacks Law Dictionary, 5th Edition (1968)
Dollar. The money unit employed in the United States of the value of one hundred cents, or any combination of coins totalling one hundred cents.
Blacks Law Dictionary, 6th Edition (1979)
Dollar. The money unit employed in the United States of the value of one hundred cents, or any combination of coins totalling one hundred cents.
Cent. A coin of the United States, the least in value of those now minted. It is the hundredth part of a dollar.
Blacks Law Dictionary, 7th Edition (current edition)
(No definition for "dollar" or "cent" found)
Ballentines Law Dictionary, 2nd Edition (1930 & 1948)
Dollar (dol'ar). "There is no ambiguity about the word 'dollar'." If any word has a settled meaning at law, and in the courts, it is this. It can only mean the legal currency of the United States, not dollars vested in lands. A dollar is the volume of money, and is by law made a money unit. value of the value of cine hundred cents. See State v. Downs, J.48 Ind. 324, 327.
Ballentines Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition. (1969)
dollar. The legal currency of the United States; State v Downs, J.48 Ind 324, 327; the unit of money consisting of one hundred cents. The aggregate of specific coins which add up to one dollar. 3.6 Am J~st Money AS 8. In the absence of qualifying words, it cannot mean promissory notes, bonds, or other evidences of debt. 36 AM JIst Money AS 8. (Emphasis Added)
American Jurisprudence, Volume 36, AS 8
[T] he term "dollar" means money, since it is the unit of money in this country,
and in the absence of qualifying words, it cannot mean promissory notes or bonds or other evidences of debt.. The term also. refers to specific coins of the value of one 'dollar. (27 Ohio Jur pp. 125, 126, AS 3), (United States v. Van Auken, 96 US 366, 24 L ~d 852)
Black's Law, Second Pocket Edition (1996) .
Federal Reserve Note
Federal reserve note. The paper currency. in circulation in the United States.
The notes are issued by the Federal Reserve Banks, are effectively .
non-interest-bearing promissory notes payable to bearer on demand, and are issued in denominations of $J., $5, $10, $20, $50, .$J.OO, $500, $1,000, $5,000,
and $10,000. (Emphasis Added) .
Title 18 AS 8. - Obligation or other security of the United States defined
The term · 'obligation or other security of the United States" includes all bonds, certificates of indebtedness, national bank currency, Federal Reserve notes, Federal Reserve.bank notes, coupons, United States notes, Treasury notes, gold certificates, silver certificates, fractional notes, certificates of deposit, bills; .checks, or drafts 'for money, drawn by or upon authorized officers of the United States, stamps and other representatives of value, of whatever denomination, issued under any Act of Congress, and canceled United States stamps. (Emphasis Added)
[The following information is from Christopher Hansen}
Senator Ensign sends the Definition of Dollar! VICTORY IS MINE!
Friday, December 21st 2007
After years and years of writing government official~ asking what a dollar is I finally got it. It is,
surprisingly, a clear and unequivocal answer to the question: "What is a dollar."
Senator John Ensign of Nevada sent me the ANSWER written in a report by the Congressional Research Service. The most important part of the answer is found on page three (page two of the ariswer) when it states:
Ballentines Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition (1969)
Dollar. The legal currency of the United States; State v Downs, 148 Ind 324,327; the unit of money consisting.,.of one hundred cents. The aggregate of specific coins which add up to one dollar. 36 Am JIst Money A§ 8. In the absence of qualifying words, it cannot mean promissory notes, bonds, or other evidences of debt. 36 AM JIst Money A§ 8.
American Jurisprudence, Volume 36, A§ 8 [T]he term "dollar" means money, since it is the unit of money in this country, and in the absence of qualifYing words, it cannot mean promissory notes or bonds or other evidences of debt. The term also refers to specific coins of the value of one dollar. (27 Ohio Jm pp. 125, 126, A§ 3), (United States v. Van Auken, 96 US 366, 24 Led 852)
Then the report defines Federal reserve notes:
Black's Law, Second Pocket Edition (1996)
Federal Reserve Note
Federal reserve note. The paper currency in circulation in the United States. The notes are issued by the Federal Reserve Banks, are effectively non-interest-bearing promisso:ry notes payable to bearer on demand, and are issued in denominations of $l, $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000. .
"Payable" in what? In dollars of course. You cannot pay with a "promissory note".
Therefore it is VERY CLEAR that Federal reserve notes ARE NOT dollars but should be able to
be redeemed in "dollars." FRNs, however, cannot, presently, be redeemed in "money" but only in other notes. Remember that the "term 'dollar' means money" which CANNOT BE promissory notes according to the report.
Therefore, when you receive Federal reserve notes (promissory notes) issued in any "$" denominations, you must calculate their ''value'' in REAL "dollars" such as the report describes as:
DOLLAR. The unit employed in the United States in*calculating money values. * Blacks Law Dictionary, 4th Edition Revised (1957)
If you are a Nevada citizen I highly recommend that you contact Senator Ensign's Las Vegas office at (702) 388-6605 and ask Special Assistant Mary Mason, to please send you a copy of the Congressional Research Service "report" concerning the definition of what a dollar is.
If you are in another State of this Union, I highly recommend that you copy this letter from Senator Ensign's office and ask YOUR Senator or Representative to send you a copy of the Congressional Research Service "report" concerning the definition of what a dollar is.
Then, if I were you, I would send this "report" to the IRS and tell them that you are relying on this report from your Congressman as to what a "dollar" is and that you now know that a Federal reserve note is a "promissory note" and cannot.not be a dollar and so you will calculate the "value" of "Federal reserve notes" by the fair market ''value" of the silver
Libertv dollar coins (http://www.libertydollar.org/).
I would tell them that you will do this unless the IRS can show you the LAW, not the IRS's opinion or the Department of the Treasury's opinion, but the law that clearly and unequivocally states that a Federal reserve note has been defined by Congress to be a "dollar" and not just "promissory notes" or "debt instruments" or "legal tender" (pennies are legal tender and not dollars) that are "issued in denominations" of "$s".
It is clear that these silver Liberty dollar coins, authorized by Congress at 31 use Sec. 5112 (e) with the "value" of a dollar as per 31 USC Sec. 5112 (d)(I), meet all the legal requirements to be dollars as per the "report" while Federal reserve notes issued in various denominations of "$s" do not meet ANY of the legal requirements of a dollar but only those of, possibly, United States Securities and/or legal tender as per 31 USC See. 5103. But since they eannot be redeemed in "dollars" you are not even sure they meet those standards.
We Americans SHOULD have the right to know what the value of a dollar is in clear and unequivocal terms since, if we are liable for a tax by clear and unequivocal language, we must be able to caleulate that tax using: "The unit (dollar) employed in the United States in calculating money values." Blacks Law Dictionary, 4th Edition Revised (1957) (See report). Because if we cannot use the dollar to calculate "income" (whatever that is) then we CANNOT know the "value" of whatever we accepted as payment.
Keeping in mind the well-settled role that the citizen is exempt from taxation unless the same is imposed by clear and unequivocal language, and that where the construction of a tax law is doubtful, the doubt is to be resolved in favor of those upon whom the tax is sought to be laid... Spreckels Sugar Refining Co. v. McClain, 192 U.S. 397,24 S.Ct. 376,418, U.S. 1904
It is time to stand up against the Federal Reserve Banking tyranny. This is your chance to do something. It may not be a lot but it is an opportunity to do something to stop this Federal Reserve Bank taxation (inflation is a tax) without representation. Did you elect the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Bank? NO! Does Congress audit the Federal Reserve Bank? NO! Is the Federal Reserve Bank the establishment of the Second Plank of the Communist manifesto? YES? Is the Income Tax the Establishment of the Second Plank of the Communist Manifesto? YES. Is Communism a religion? Professors and religious organizations around the country say that it is.
Stand up. Get a copy of the report ftom your Congressman! Senator! Do it today.
And please forward a copy of what you receive to Christopher Hansen either by scanning it in
and emailing it to me at
All information posted on this web site is
the opinion of the author and is provided for educational purposes only.
It is not to be construed as medical advice. Only a licensed medical doctor
can legally offer medical advice in the United States. Consult the healer
of your choice for medical care and advice.