[Editor's Note: I'm publishing this article as a courtesy
to this author whom I do not know. I have not looked at the Dingle cell
design and I don't have the time to study its merits or that of this author's
theories. I do know that any by-product of an energy production system that
puts out something other than water vapor, CO2 or oxygen (such as in the
Stanely Meyer designs) is less than my
idea of the ideal water fuel cell design. This article is solely offered
as food for thought...Ken Adachi]
From James <email@example.com>
June 11, 2004
Subject: Dingle's Magic Car and How It Could Save the World
Date: Fri, June 11, 2004 11:34 am
Please forgive me for insisting on anonymity, but I hope you will
understand. Please publish this letter because I think that it could be
Joe Cell builders.
There have been plans for water-cell conversions of cars on
the internet but it would be impossible to build a working water car from
these plans because there is an essential feature missing which is present
in Dingle's car. I believe that the authors of these planss are either deliberately
trying to provide disinformation to discourage further investigation by
the curious or else they wish to protect themselves in the event that their
authorship could be proved. If the latter is the case then maybe they are
hoping someone will be intelligent enough to to supply the missing piece
of the jigsaw.
The Dingle car does not burn Hydrogen and Oxygen made by hydrolysis
as has been supposed. In fact it burns Hydrogen and Nitrous Oxide. The latter
is produced by an electric discharge in the empty space of the reactor under
conditions of low pressure caused by the induction stroke of the engine.
The combustion of Nitrous Oxide and Hydrogen has the following properties:
1. The combustion of Nitrous Oxide and Hydrogen (N2 + 1/2O2)
is an endothermic process which absorbes heat and has a heat of formation
of 74 kJ. In practice the engine runs cool and the exhaust is cool. The
radiator can freeze up requiring anti-freeze in the coolant.
2. When equal parts of Hydrogen and Nitrous Oxide are ignited
the volume of gas decreases by a half plus some water. In practice this
means that the charge in the cylinder implodes rather than explodes and
the timing of the engine has to be advanced by 20 to 80 degrees.
3. Nitrous Oxide contains three times as much Oxygen as does
air so that when Hydrogen combusts in it there is an unusually strong explosion.
This may allow the gas flow from hydrolysis to be sufficient to power the
4. a considerable amount of water is evaporated in the reactor
due to the low pressure caused by the engine's induction stroke. This water
vapour will condense in the cylinders and give up it's latent heat of evaporation
to the combustion of Nitrous Oxide and Hydrogen.
The electrolysis of water (H20 = H2 + 1/2O2) an the formation
of Nitrous Oxide (1/2N2 + 1/2O2) are also endothermic reactions with a heat
of formation of 242 kJ and 90 kJ respectively. In theory it ought to be
possible to recycle all of the Nitrogen and water from the exhaust making
it a closed system, but Dingle for some reason has to refill the reactor
from an on-board water tank.
Where does the energy come from to power the vehicle? I believe
the energy comes from ambient heat in the space surrounding the engine.
The temperature differential between the inside and the outside of the engine
compartment would be insufficient to accelerate a car to 200km/h. I believe
that the cooling system is functioning as a heat pump supplying thermal
energy to the engine and that the power of the engine depends on the rate
that heat is pumped into it as well as the difference in the temperature
between the outside and inside of the engine compartment. This would make
it analogous to the Stirling engine which uses an external heat source to
expand a fixed masss of gas in it's cylinders. Unlike the Stirling engine,
the Dingle Engine is not a Carnot cycle engine and is therefore much more
efficient. It can alsos extract energy from low temperature sources. This
hypothesis is supported by the fact that there are reports that water cars
with aluminium engine blocks function better tahtn cars with iron engine
blocks. If this hypothesis is true then I would expect water cars to be
more successful in hot countries and this is confirmed by the fact that
there are said to be many water cars in Australia.
It may be the case in cooler regions it would be necessary
to burn hydrocarbon fuel in addition to the Nitrous Oxide and Hydrogen in
order to achieve sufficient power. If this is the case then two or three
cylinders of a four cylinder engine could be reserved for N2 + 1/2O2 combustion
with advanced timing and the remaining cylinders would burn hydrocarbon
fuel with normal timing. That is cylinders with different fuels would require
different ignition systems. The heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel could
be collected from the exhast using a heat exchanger and routed back to
the engine via the water jacket to supply the heat needed by N2 + 1/2O2
combustion. This would make it an extrememly efficient engine and I would
expect outstanding fuel consumption figures like 300 mpg.
The environmental benefits of water cars would include not
only a diminuation of harmful emissions and oil consumption. If applied
on a large enough scale this technology could actually reverse global warming
because heat is being taken out of the environment and converted into kinetic
energy. There is a possible environmental risk in the fact that Nitrous
Oxide would be leaked into the atmosphere, but this could be minimised by
recycling all of the exhaust. Compared to the Nitrogen Dioxide released
by normal internal combustion engines Nitrous Oxide is fairly benigh and
has even been used as a propellent for spray cans instead of CFCs.
All information posted on this web site is
the opinion of the author and is provided for educational purposes only.
It is not to be construed as medical advice. Only a licensed medical doctor
can legally offer medical advice in the United States. Consult the healer
of your choice for medical care and advice.