First published in the Daily Northwestern, May 13, 1991, correction May 14).
I see three principal reasons for the widespread but erroneous belief in the legend of millions of Jews killed by the Germans during World War II: U.S. and British troops found horrible piles of corpses in the west German camps they captured in 1945 (e.g. Dachau and Belsen), there are no longer large communities of Jews in Poland, and historians generally support the legend.
During both world wars Germany was forced to fight typhus, carried by lice in the constant traffic with the east. That is why all accounts of entry into the German concentration camps speak of shaving of hair, showering, and other delousing procedures, such as treatment of quarters with the pesticide Zyklon. That was also the main reason for a high death rate in the camps and the crematories that existed in all.
When Germany collapsed in chaos, then of course, all such [delousing] defenses ceased, and typhus and other diseases became rampant in the camps, which quartered mainly political prisoners, ordinary criminals, homosexuals, conscientious objectors, and Jews conscripted for labor. Hence the horrible scenes, which however had nothing to do with "extermination" or any deliberate policy. Moreover, the west German camps involved were not the alleged "extermination camps", which were all in Poland (e.g. Auschwitz and Treblinka) and which were all evacuated or shut down before capture by the Soviets, who found no such scenes.
The "Final Solution " spoken of in the German documents was a program of evacuation, resettlement, and deportation of Jews with the ultimate objective of expulsion from Europe. During the war, Jews of various nationalities were being moved east, as one stage in this Final Solution. The legend claims that the movements were mainly for extermination purposes.
The great majority of the millions allegedly exterminated were east European, not German or west European, Jews. For that reason, study of the problem via population statistics has been difficult to impossible, but it is a fact that there are no longer large communities of Jews in Poland. However, the Germans were only one of several parties involved in moving Jews around. The Soviets deported virtually all of the Jews of eastern Poland to their interior in 1940. After the war, with Polish and other Jews pouring out of the east into occupied west Germany, the Zionists moved large numbers to Palestine, and the U.S. and other countries absorbed many Jews, in most cases under conditions making impossible a numerical accounting. Moreover, the Polish borders were changed drastically at the end of the war; the country was literally moved west.
Historians generally support the legend, but there are precedents for nearly incomprehensible blindness on the part of scholars. For example, throughout the Middle Ages even the Pope's political enemies conceded his false claim that the 4th century Emperor Constantine had ceded rule of the west to the Pope, although all knew very well that Constantine had been succeeded by more emperors. Near unanimity among the academics is especially suspect when there exist great political pressures; in some countries Holocaust revisionists have been prosecuted.
It is easy to show that the extermination legend merits skepticism. Even the casual reader of the Holocaust literature knows that during the war virtually nobody acted as though it was happening. Thus, it is common to berate the Vatican, the Red Cross, and the Allies (especially the intelligence agencies) for their ignorance and inaction, and to explain that the Jews generally did not resist deportation because they did not know what was in store for them. If you add all this up you have the strange claim that for almost three years German trains, operating on a continental scale in densely civilized regions of Europe, were regularly and systematically moving millions of Jews to their deaths, and nobody noticed except for a few of our Jewish leaders who were making public "extermination" claims.
On closer examination, even those few Jewish leaders were not acting as though it was happening. Ordinary communications between the occupied and neutral countries were open, and they were in contact with the Jews whom the Germans were deporting, who thus could not have been in ignorance of "extermination" if those claims had any validity.
This incredible ignorance must also be attributed to Hans Oster's department in German military intelligence, correctly labeled "the veritable general staff of the opposition to Hitler" in a recent review.
What we are offered in evidence was gathered after the war, in trials. The evidence is almost all oral testimony and "confessions." Without the evidence of these trials there would be no significant evidence of "extermination". One must pause and ponder this carefully. Were trials needed to determine that the Battle of Waterloo happened? The bombings of Hamburg, Dresden, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki? The slaughter in Cambodia?
Yet this three year program, of continental scope, claiming millions of victims, required trials to argue its reality. I am not arguing that the trials were illegal or unfair; I am arguing that such historical logic as the legend rests on must not be countenanced. Such events cannot happen without generating commensurate and evidence for their reality, just as a great forest fire cannot take place without producing smoke. One may as well believe that New York City was burned down, if confessions to the deed can be produced.
Detailed consideration of the specific evidence put forward in support of the legend has been a focus of the revisionist literature, but I shall mention one point here. The claim of the legend is that there were no technical means provided for the specific task of extermination, and that means originally provided for other purposes did double duty in improvised arrangements. Thus, the Jews were allegedly gassed with the pesticide Zyklon, and their corpses disappeared into the crematories along with the deaths from "ordinary" causes (the ashes or other remains of millions of victims never having been found).
Surely any thoughtful person must be skeptical.
Edited by Barbara Kulaszka
Foreword by Robert Faurisson
Criminal Prosecution of 'Holocaust Denial'
District Court Judge Ron Thomas ..................23
Sgt. John Luby and Sgt. Ronald F. William
Witnesses for the Prosecution
Charles Biedermann ......................................198
René de Grace ...............................................205
Christopher R. Browning ..............................206
Witnesses for the Defense ..............................353
Ditlieb Felderer .............................................353
Thies Christophersen ....................................378
Dr. Russell Barton ........................................386
Kuang Fann ..................................................397
Jürgen Neumann ..........................................402
Bradley Smith ...............................................408
Bernard Kneuper ..........................................416
Mark Weber .................................................419
Maria Van Herwaarden ................................544
Tijudar Rudolph ..........................................548
Joseph G. Burg ............................................551
Gary Botting ................................................558
Ivan Lagacé .................................................568
Hans Schroeder ............................................575
Udo Walendy ...............................................578
Emil Lachout ...............................................602
Robert Faurisson .........................................604
Bill M. Armontrout .....................................726
Kenneth Roy Wilson ...................................730
Fred A. Leuchter, Jr. ...................................733
James Roth .................................................749
David Irving ................................................752
Did Six Million Really Die?
By Richard Harwood
In the early 1980s, Samisdat Publishers Ltd., under the signature of its president, Ernst Zündel, published a 32-page booklet entitled Did Six Million Really Die?. The
booklet was published under a licence from Historical Review Press in England which
prohibited Samisdat from making any changes whatsoever to the publication.
Samisdat sent the booklet to hundreds of teachers, ministers, politicians and media
personalities across Canada in the hope that interest could be aroused in discussing
the subject explored in the booklet: did six million Jews really die pursuant to a
systematic policy of extermination by Nazi Germany during World War II?
Samisdat received no complaints regarding the booklet's factual accuracy. Nevertheless, in 1983, Samisdat's president, Ernst Zündel, was charged under a private information laid by Sabina Citron [left], a founder of the Canadian Holocaust Remembrance Association, with the criminal offence of "spreading false news" likely to cause racial and social intolerance. The charge was later assumed by the Crown and
led to two lengthy jury trials in 1985 and 1988, both of which ended in convictions.
There is no doubt that
Did Six Million Really Die? contained errors. It was written
hastily by a young University of London graduate, Richard Verrall (who used the
pseudonym "Richard Harwood") in the early 1970s. The errors, however, were the
type of minor error which one can find in the first edition of any non-fiction book. For
example, Verrall wrote that the first allegation of mass murder of Jews was made
against the Germans in 1943 by the Polish Jew Raphael Lemkin. In fact, the first
charge of mass murder was made by the Allies in a Joint Declaration issued on
December 17, 1942. The error played no significant part in the argumentation of the
author. The significance and importance of Did Six Million Really Die? lay in its
logic, its reasoning and its opinions. It critiqued the weaknesses of the evidence and
arguments provided in orthodox "Holocaust" literature and it gave to the reader little-
known alternate views of what happened in the camps, such as those of Dr. Russell
Barton (who was present in Bergen-Belsen immediately after its liberation) and Thies
Christophersen (who was stationed near Auschwitz during the war). It summarized the findings of the French revisionist historian Paul Rassinier, whose works at that
time were not known at all in the English-speaking world. In short, Did Six Million
Really Die? did what polemical works were meant to do: it provided the reader with
an alternate viewpoint on a historical event.
Two juries convicted Zündel notwithstanding devastating cross-examination of
Holocaust "survivors" and Holocaust historians by defence attorney Douglas H.
Christie and notwithstanding expert evidence which crushed the basis of the
Holocaust story, namely, the allegation that millions of Jews were done to death with
industrial efficiency in gigantic gas chambers and disposed of in crematories and
burning pits. It did not matter to the jury in the second Zündel trial in 1988 that the
warden of a United States penitentiary, Bill M. Armontrout, testified to the enormous
difficulties of gassing even one person today in gas chambers. It did not matter to the jury that a forensic investigation of Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek by the only
expert in gas chamber technology in the United States, Fred A. Leuchter, Jr., resulted
in Leuchter's opinion that no gassings could have taken place in the alleged Nazi gas
chambers. It mattered not that the Canadian crematory expert, Ivan Lagacé, testified
that the thousands of persons alleged by Holocaust historians to have been cremated
in Birkenau and Auschwitz daily were "ludicrous" and "beyond the realm of reality." It did not matter to the jury that the internationally-known British historian David
Irving [left] testified that he no longer believed in the "Holocaust" as it had been defined by
its historians. It did not matter that Holocaust historian Raul Hilberg [right] refused to return
to testify in 1988 after testifying in 1985 for fear of cross- examination. It did not
matter that the Crown could not produce one expert witness in gas chambers or
crematories to refute the defence expert evidence.
If the evidence presented at the 1988 trial of Zündel was not enough to convince the
jury to acquit him, it was enough to start an explosive chain reaction of books and
studies into the veracity of the gas chamber claim. The evidence of Fred A. Leuchter,
Jr. and his report on the gas chambers at Auschwitz and Majdanek by far caused the
most reverberations. The Jewish Holocaust lobby at first ignored the Leuchter Report,
but as its influence mounted internationally, they scrambled to attempt to refute it.The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation published the books Auschwitz: Technique and
Operation of the Gas Chambers and Truth Prevails: Demolishing Holocaust Denial:
the end of "The Leuchter Report." The success of these books in "demolishing" the
Leuchter Report can perhaps be measured by the fact that almost no one has heard of
them; the mass media, usually so willing to use anything to smear Holocaust
revisionism, has virtually ignored them
Apparently unable to find competent experts to support the gas chamber claim among
engineers and crematory experts, the Jewish Holocaust lobby turned the use of their
considerable resources instead to ensuring the destruction of Fred Leuchter's career
and the passage of laws in France and Austria making "denial of the Holocaust" a
criminal offence. A full account of the tactics used against Leuchter can be found in
his article "Witch Hunt in Boston" (Journal of Historical Review, vol. 10, pp. 453-460). While the Jewish lobby has succeeded in the political arena in having repressive
laws enacted against revisionism, they have not succeeded in refuting revisionism on
its merits, most importantly its technical and forensic evidence. The report of Fred A.
Leuchter, Jr., has engendered three further studies of the gas chambers.
Krakow Forensic Institute
In response to the Leuchter Report, the Auschwitz State Museum in 1990
commissioned the Krakow Forensic Institute to carry out an investigation of the
alleged gassing sites at the camp. The result of the testing of brick and mortar samples
fully corroborated the findings of Leuchter: the Institute found either no traces or
extremely small traces of cyanide in its samples. The Institute explained the test
results, however, by stating that it could not be assumed that cyanide traces would still
be detected after 45 years of being subjected to the weather and the elements. The
Krakow Forensic Institute also tested samples of hair from the Auschwitz Museum for
cyanide. The tests proved negative. (For a copy of the report and commentary, see "An Official Polish Report on the Auschwitz 'Gas Chambers'", Journal of Historical
Review, vol. 11, pp. 207- 216).
Germar Rudolf, a diplom chemist in Germany, investigated the sites of the alleged gas
chambers of Auschwitz and took samples for the purpose of determining cyanide
levels. Tests on the samples showed no or minimal traces of cyanide. Rudolf's report concluded, like Leuchter's, that the alleged gas chambers at Auschwitz could never
have been used for gassings. Rudolf disputed the Krakow Forensic Institute's
conclusion that the cyanide had been removed by environmental factors, pointing out
that it was well-known that cyanide compounds have enormous environmental
resistance. Ernst Zündel's attempts to call Rudolf as an expert witness on charges in
Germany regarding the "Holocaust" were prevented by the German judge.
Walter Lüftl Walter Lüftl is a professional engineer with a large engineering firm in Vienna and is
president of the Austrian Chamber of Engineers. In 1992 Lüftl wrote a report calling
the alleged extermination of millions of Jews in gas chambers "technically
impossible." He pointed out that the design of the crematories themselves showed that
they were incapable of handling the number of victims alleged. "Corpses are not
flammable material," wrote Lüftl, " to cremate them requires much time and energy."
These reports and other mounting evidence have shown the durability of the
conclusions stated in Did Six Million Really Die?. The booklet has proven to be, in
the words of Dr. RobertFaurisson, "prophetic."
Today Samisdat is proud to publish Did Six Million Really Die?: Report of the
Evidence in the Canadian "False News" Trial of Ernst Zündel, 1988. This book is the
result of four years of work and summarizes for the reader the evidence presented at
the second Zündel trial in 1988. This includes, for the Crown, the evidence of
Holocaust historians Raul Hilberg (whose evidence from 1985 was read to the jury
since he refused to re-attend personally) and Christopher Browning and the evidence
of Red Cross representative Charles Biedermann. For the defence, it includes the
evidence of the premiere revisionist historian today, Dr. Robert Faurisson, that of the
internationally renowned British historian David Irving, German historian Udo
Walendy, American historian Mark Weber, Canadian crematory expert Ivan Lagacé and Canadian aerial photograph expert Ken Wilson. It includes the evidence and the
report of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr., concerning his forensic investigation of the alleged gas
chambers at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek and the evidence of chemistry expert Dr. James Roth concerning the cyanide content of samples removed from the alleged
Auschwitz gas chambers by Leuchter. It summarizes the evidence of the path-breaking Swedish revisionist writer, Ditlieb Felderer, and reproduces the revealing
photographs of Auschwitz and Birkenau which Felderer showed the jury.
It is shocking that the persecution of Ernst Zündel has continued for ten years and
continues today with virtually no protest either in the intellectual or media elites of
Canada. These elites are apparently no longer interested in objective truth, but
interested only in maintaining the "political correctness" which will ensure access to
lucrative government and institutional positions, the continuation of government and
academic grants and the accolades of their like-minded peers. These elites did not simply remain silent concerning the Zündel trials but participated in a feeding frenzy
of hatred against him simply because he had published a booklet questioning the
Holocaust. Few voices were raised in defence of intellectual freedom and its relation
to the workings of a true democracy. Instead, Zündel was attacked, vilified and
ridiculed. The media willingly censored the 1988 trial. The performance of these
elites in the Zündel affair has shown that they are unwilling to inform Canadians
honestly about controversial and vital issues which offend powerful vested interests;
indeed, it has proven their total corruption.
Ernst Zündel, in the foreword to the first
Did Six Million Really Die? , wrote the
" Truth has no need of coercion. Those who choose to ignore the truth are not punished
by law -- they punish themselves. We of Samisdat Publishers do not believe thatyou
should be forced to read something, any more than we believe that you should be
forced not to read something...Whether you agree or disagree with the facts presented
in this booklet, we invite you to assist us in reclaiming and safeguarding the freedoms
we have all so long enjoyed, until now, in Canada. Without freedom of enquiry and
freedom of access to information we cannot have freedom of thought and without reedom of thought, we cannot be a free people."
Today those words apply with even greater force as more and more individuals face
prosecution in Canada and Europe for their beliefs and opinions. Samisdat offers this
book to its readers in the hope that they will reclaim for themselves the right to decide
what is truth in history
This book began in the fall of 1987 as a series of witness evidence summaries to be
used in the then rapidly approaching second Zündel trial (which commenced on
January 18, 1988). Evidence from the second trial was later summarized for use in
preparation of the appeal to the Ontario Court of Appeal in 1989. The project
expanded considerably in 1990 when Ernst Zündel asked me to put the summaries in
a form which could be published as a record of the evidence presented in the 1988 trial. This book is the result.
Most of the considerable testimony given at the trial over a period of three months has been condensed into summaries for the reader. The testimonies of important
historians, however, have been included almost in their entirety. These historians are Raul Hilberg and Christopher Browning for the prosecution and Robert Faurisson and
David Irving for the defence. Every attempt has been made to ensure the accuracy of direct quotes from the transcript and the accuracy of reproductions of exhibits referred
to in the trial. It should be noted that the questions and comments made by defence attorney Douglas Christie, Crown Attorney John Pearson [left] and Judge Ron Thomas [right] are
not direct quotes unless indicated by quotation marks.
My own involvement in the Zündel case began in early 1985 when I worked part time in the County Courthouse library in Toronto at the time of the first trial. I attended the
proceedings during my free mornings and was shocked by what I saw. There can be nothing more disgusting than watching a man being forced to justify his writings, his
beliefs and his opinions before a criminal tribunal in a supposedly civilized and "free" country.
Zündel was being portrayed in the media as a man of hatred; but the man I saw in the courtroom was calm and always gracious to everyone he dealt with. When he
testified, he did not repudiate his belief in Germans or Germany or Adolf Hitler. He expressed clearly his admiration for their accomplishments and his disbelief that they
had committed what is known as the "Holocaust". Perhaps I had never really known what it meant to be courageous before that trial; but I knew what it meant after I
watched Ernst Zündel testify to his true beliefs notwithstanding his knowledge that the voicing of those beliefs would almost certainly seal his conviction.
And everyday as I watched defence attorney Douglas Christie [right], his legal assistant Keltie Zubko and the various defence witnesses make their way through crowds of
hostile Jews, some of whom spat on them, as I watched them being savaged by a hysterical media, as I experienced the lynch-mob atmosphere of that trial day after
day, I learned again and again what real courage was and what real dedication to the principles of a free society meant. It affected me profoundly. When the second Zündel
trial began in 1988, it was no accident that I had also become part of the defence team.
While Jewish organizations and the mass media expressed satisfaction that Zündel
had been convicted, many ordinary people in Canada were shocked at the
implications of the trial for freedom of speech and thought. In a letter to the Toronto
Sun, Lynda Mortl of Toronto wrote:
"Why are we Canadians allowing a certain pressure group to act as censors for us? And
worse, to have a member of society brought to trial, probably jailed, and/or deported
for saying something we will not even be allowed to read. The more I think about the
implications of this trial, the more angry and frightened I become. I am one Canadian
who does not want Sabina Citron, Alan Shefman or Julian Sher to decide what I will
read or what I will call the truth."
Indeed, the purpose of the prosecution of Ernst Zündel was to make sure that ordinary
Canadians would not have access to the type of information contained in
Did Six Million Really Die?. Even today, Canadians do not realize how far the original "Holocaust" story has disintegrated in the face of ongoing historical research and forensic studies of the alleged Auschwitz execution gas chambers. The tight control of information in this regard is a wonder to behold to those of us involved in this case. Canadians who believe they enjoy a "free" press in North America are sadly mistaken.
There is never any attempt in the mass media to analyse why more and more people
no longer believe in the "Holocaust"; there is no transferal of any basic information to
the average reader to let them decide for themselves whether there is anything to what
the revisionists say or whether it is hogwash. Instead, Zündel and anyone else who
questions Holocaust claims are simply branded as "evil" and "hatemongers".
This book ensures that both sides of this ethnic dispute are at least available to the
general reader. The record of the 1988 trial is unique in that the major historians on
both sides of the issue testified and were cross-examined relentlessly on their research
methods, bias, sources and findings. It records the only instance where Holocaust
historians have been forced to defend their assertion that the Jews of Europe were
exterminated (mainly in gas chambers) by the Nazi government during World War II.
For the reader it is a rare opportunity to see how in fact history is written, how indeed
history has become the tool of politics.
British historian David Irving testified that it is the reader who decides what
constitutes a "historical fact"; it is the reader who decides what has been proven to
happen in history and what has not. I therefore invite the reader to read the evidence
of one of the most significant trials of our century and with respect to the story of
what really happened to the Jews of Europe during World War II, to decide for
by Dr. Robert Faurisson [right]
Did the "Holocaust" of the European Jews really occur? Is it true that during the
Second World War, the Germans ordered, planned and carried out a policy of physical destruction of the European Jews? More specifically, did they design, build and use execution gas chambers for that purpose? Did they cause the deaths of millions of Jews in that manner?
To these questions, the majority of writers say yes; they believe in the "Holocaust" of the European Jews. We shall call these writers "exterminationists" because they
defend the thesis of the physical extermination of the Jews. To these same questions,
other writers say no; these writers are called "revisionists" but it goes without saying
that the revisionists do not dispute the fact that, during a world conflict which caused
40 to 50 million deaths, many Jews (the approximate number remains to be
Who is right? The exterminationists or the revisionists?
For the layman, there are, in principle, three main ways of forming a personal opinion
on a historical controversy.
The first way consists in reading the writings of both sides, but in this specific case
that would require much time; and revisionist literature is often difficult to obtain.
The second way is to attend a public debate between the two sides: the orthodox side
(the exterminationists) and the heterodox side (the revisionists). Unfortunately, the
exterminationists have always refused the public debate proposed to them by the
revisionists and which the revisionists continue to propose. In certain countries such
as France and Austria, the supporters of the exterminationist thesis have recently gone
so far as to obtain special laws that punish revisionists with heavy prison terms and
fines for "contesting" the existence of the "Holocaust" and the execution gas
Fortunately, there remains a third way of forming an opinion on this controversy, that
of reading the transcript of a trial where the two sides found themselves face to face
before a judge and jury. In the case which concerns us, that is what happened twice, in
1985 and 1988, in actions brought against the revisionist Ernst Zündel in Toronto by
exterminationist members of a Jewish organizatio
This remarkable book by Barbara Kulaszka rests upon thetranscripts of the 1988 trial.
It will enable the layman to obtain a precise idea of the historical controversy
surrounding the Jewish "Holocaust" and to form an opinion for himself. I must,
however, express a reservation and issue a warning to the reader: a courtroom is not
an appropriate place for a historical debate. A trial has its own formal rules oprocedure and it is very limited as to time; freedom of expression is not total since one
of the parties is seeking to obtain a condemnation as the other party is trying to avoid
that condemnation. Finally, a judge and jury, even if they listen to experts, have
neither the competence nor the means required to settle a point of history.
I participated in the preliminary hearing of Ernst Zündel in 1984, in the first Zündel
trial in 1985 (quashed on procedural and substantive grounds), and, finally, in the
second Zündel trial in 1988. I published a complete account of the case in The Journal
of Historical Review, Winter 1988-1989, pp. 417-431 in an article entitled "The
Zündel Trials (1985-1988)". I take the liberty of referring the reader to it, but I would
also wish to quote here a passage from the article and to comment on it in the light of
what has happened since 1988. This passage deals essentially with my own discovery
in the 1970s of the chemical impossibility of the Auschwitz execution gassings and
the confirmation of that impossibility by Fred Leuchter. I wrote then:
"For my part, I appeared as an expert witness for nearly six days. I concentrated
particularly on my investigations of the American gas chambers. I recalled that
Zyklon B is essentially hydrocyanic acid and that it is with this gas that certain
American penitentiaries execute those who have been condemned to death."
In 1945 the Allies should have asked specialists on American gas chambers to
examine the buildings, at Auschwitz and elsewhere, which were supposed to have
been used to gas millions of people. Since 1977, I have had the following idea: when
one deals with a vast historical problem like that of the reality or the legend of the
Holocaust, one must strive to get to the core of the problem. In this case the central
problem is Auschwitz and the core of that problem is a space of 275 square metres:
the 65 square metres of the "gas chamber" of crematorium I at Auschwitz and, at
Birkenau, the 210 square metres of the "gas chamber" of crematorium II. In 1988, my
idea remained the same: let us have expert studies of those 275 square metres and we
will have an answer to the vast problem of the Holocaust! I showed the jury my
photos of the gas chamber at the Maryland State Penitentiary in Baltimore as well as
my plans for the Auschwitz gas chambers and I underlined the physical and chemical
impossibilities of the latter ones.
A Sensational Turn of Events: The Leuchter Report
Ernst Zündel, in possession of the correspondence I had exchanged in 1977-78 with
the six American penitentiaries outfitted with gas chambers, gave attorney Barbara
Kulaszka the job of getting in touch with the chief wardens of those penitentiaries in
order to see if one of them would agree to appear in court to explain how a real gas
chamber operates. Bill Armontrout, chief warden of the penitentiary at Jefferson City
(Missouri), agreed to testify and in doing so pointed out that no one in the USA was
more knowledgeable about the functioning of gas chambers than Fred A. Leuchter [right], an
engineer from Boston. I went to visit Leuchter on February 3 and 4, 1988. I found that
he had never asked himself any questions about the "gas chambers" in the German
camps. He had simply believed in their existence. After I began to show him my files,
he became aware of the chemical and physical impossibility of the German "gassings" and he agreed to examine our documents in Toronto
After that, at Zündel's expense, he left for Poland with a secretary (his wife), a
draftsman, a video-cameraman and an interpreter. He came back and drew up a 192
page report (including appendices). He also brought back 32 samples taken, on the
one hand, from the crematories of Auschwitz and Birkenau at the site of the homicidal "gassings" and, on the other hand, in a disinfection gas chamber at Birkenau. His
conclusion was simple: there had never been any homicidal gassings at Auschwitz,
Birkenau, or Majdanek.
On April 20 and 21, 1988, Fred Leuchter appeared on the witness stand in the Toronto
courtroom. He told the story of his investigation and presented his conclusions. I am
convinced that during those two days I was an eyewitness to the death of the gas
chamber myth, a myth which, in my opinion, had entered its death throes at the
Sorbonne colloquium on "Nazi Germany and the Extermination of the Jews" (June 29
to July 2, 1982), where the organizers themselves began to grasp that there was no
proof of the existence of the gas chambers.
In the Toronto courtroom emotions were intense, in particular among the friends of
Sabina Citron. Ernst Zündel's friends were also moved, but for a different reason: they
were witnessing the veil of the great swindle being torn away. As for me, I felt both
relief and melancholy: relief because a thesis that I had defended for so many years
was at last fully confirmed, and melancholy because I had fathered the idea in the first
place. I had even, with the clumsiness of a man of letters, presented physical,
chemical, topographical and architectural arguments which I now saw summed up by
a scientist who was astonishingly precise and thorough.
Would people one day remember the skepticism I had encountered, even from other
Revisionists? Just before Fred Leuchter, Bill Armontrout had been on the witness
stand, where he confirmed, in every detail, what I had said to the jury about the
extreme difficulties of a homicidal gassing (not to be confused with a suicidal or
accidental gassing). Ken Wilson, a specialist in aerial photographs, had shown that the
homicidal "gas chambers" of Auschwitz and Birkenau did not have gas evacuation
chimneys, which would have been indispensable. He also showed that I had been
right in accusing Serge Klarsfeld and Jean-Claude Pressac of falsifying the map of
Birkenau in The Auschwitz Album (Seuil Publishers, 1983, p. 42). Those authors, in
order to make the reader believe that groups of Jewish women and children surprised
by the photographer between crematories II and III could not go any farther and were
thus going to end up in the "gas chambers" and those crematories, had simply [been]
eliminated from the map the path which, in reality, led up to the "Zentralsauna," a
large shower facility (located beyond the zone of the crematories), where those
women and children were actually going.
James Roth, director of a laboratory in Massachusetts, then testified on the analysis of
the 32 samples, the origin of which he was unaware of: all the samples taken in the
homicidal "gas chambers" contained a quantity of cyanide which was either
unmeasurable or infinitesimal, while the sample from the disinfection gas chamber,
taken for comparison's sake, contained an enormous amount of cyanide (the
infinitesimal quantity detected in the former case can be explained by the fact that the
supposed homicidal gas chambers were in fact morgues for preserving bodies; such
morgues could have been occasionally disinfected with Zyklon B (pp. 428-430).
That happened in 1988. Four years later, the Leuchter Report was confirmed by three
other reports: first, that of the Krakow Forensic Institute; then, that of the German
Germar Rudolf, and finally, that of the Austrian Walter Lüftl. The most stunning of
these three reports is the one from Krakow. It had been pressed for by the authorities
at the Auschwitz State Museum in the hope that it would disprove the Leuchter
Report's conclusions. The opposite happened and despite embarrassed explanations to
try to minimize the meaning of their own tests, the authors of the Krakow report
indeed confirmed -- involuntarily -- that Fred Leuchter was right. As a result, the
exterminationists prefer to treat the report of the Krakow Forensic Institute with
In 1989, the pharmacist Jean-Claude Pressac published, under the aegis of New
York's Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, an enormous book entitled Auschwitz: Technique
and Operation of the Gas Chambers. I rendered an account of that exterminationist
attempt in The Journal of Historical Review in 1991 [Spring 1991, pp. 25-66 and
Summer, 1991, pp. 133-175].
I showed there that "the exterminationist mountain" in
labour had brought forth "a revisionist mouse." The occasion gave me the opportunity
to emphasize again what I call "one of the 20th century's great paradoxes": that
millions of people, stupefied by incessant media propaganda, believe in the Nazi gas
chambers without ever having seen one, without having the slightest idea of what this
allegedly fantastic weapon was, without any ability to describe its shape and
operation. The Nazi gas chamber is alleged to have physically existed; yet no one can
provide us with a representation of it! This gas chamber is immaterial and magical.
Nobody, and above all, not J.-C. Pressac in his work with the misleading title, has
been able in a half-century to provide us with a photograph, a blueprint or a model.
The rare attempts in that direction have ended in failure. In their works, such men as
Poliakov, Wellers, Hilberg or Pressac have not dared -- and for a good reason -- to
reproduce a complete photograph of the alleged "gas chambers" which tourists can
visit in certain concentration camps. Nor do they reproduce the large mock-up which
tourists can see at the Auschwitz Museum's Block 4, for they know that this is but a
grotesque trick. Thus, the challenge I have made to the adepts of the "Holocaust" religion for decades remains the same: "I will be prepared to believe in the Nazi gas
chamber, the central pillar of the 'Holocaust' religion, on the day you can describe 'a
single one of those gas chambers' to me." Sometimes I add: "But you are unable to do
so. Those chemical slaughterhouses where, according to you, one could have entered
with impunity to retrieve millions of bodies out of an ocean of hydrocyanic acid were
a physical and chemical impossibility. One cannot describe or draw the alleged
homicidal gas chamber of Auschwitz as one cannot describe or draw a square circle or
a circular square."
Our age believes itself to be skeptical, believing only that which it sees. It claims to be
the age of television. Yet it believes in a material thing of which it does not have the
least material representation and never has a book, a movie or the television provided
us with an image of this material thing. The best way to deceive the masses is by
suggestion which entails auto-suggestion. Television cannot show or describe a Nazi
gas chamber but it suggests the idea; for example, it shows a building and the
commentary asserts: "Building containing a gas chamber"; or it settles for showing us
a simple shower sprinkler and like Pavlovian dogs we are conditioned, lo and behold, "to see" a "gas chamber." Other times, our pity will be aroused over some "hair of the gassed", "suitcases of the gassed", "baby carriages of the gassed infants." Thus do we
go from suggestion to auto-suggestion.
The myth of the gassing of civilians in enclosed places dates back to 1916; already, at
that time, the Germans, Austrians or the Bulgarians were accused of gassing Serbian
men, women and children. After the war, this myth was quickly overshadowed by the
myth of the Belgian children having their hands crushed by uhlans; it vanished only to
reappear twenty years later. This time the victims were no longer Serbs, but Jews. And
it is this myth, absurd and painful, that at the end of the 20th century is persistently
imposed upon us.
In centuries past, people believed, likewise, in the devil, in his physical shape, in his
pales and tenterhooks, in his shouts and in his smells. Tribunals, chaired by judges
who reckoned themselves intelligent and enlightened, posited in principle (judicial
notice!) that such was true, so obviously true that demonstrating it was unwarranted.
Yet it was false. Smack in the middle of the 20th century, devilry came back and
judges who thought themselves more intelligent and more enlightened than their
predecessors of centuries past, posited in principle (judicial notice anew!) that the
devilish Nazi gas chambers had indeed existed. In Toronto in 1988, Judge Ron
Thomas took "judicial notice" of the "Holocaust" notwithstanding that this was the
very issue at the core of the trial where the matter was one of determining whether
Ernst Zündel was spreading false news or not when he distributed a piece of
revisionist literature entitled Did Six Million Really Die?.
I was a witness to Ernst Zündel's judicial and extra-judicial calvary. This man is a
heroic figure of our time. He honours the German people of whom he was born. He
honours Canada where he came to settle. But Germany and Canada, without reason,
work against him at the instigation of the leaders of the world Jewish community. It is
a disgrace. As historian David Irving said so well: "The Jewish community have to
examine their consciences. They have been propagating something that isn't true." (The Jewish Chronicle, London, 23 June 1989).
Under a simple exterior, Ernst Zündel has a visionary's depth. This peasant of
Swabian origin, this artist, this businessman, casts a penetrating gaze on history,
society, politics, institutions and men. In my article on his trials which I have already
referred to, my conclusion had been the following:
Ernst Zündel had promised that his trial would be "the trial of the Nuremberg Trial" or "the Stalingrad of the Exterminationists." The unfolding of those two long trials
proved him right, even though the jury, "instructed" by the judge to consider the
Holocaust as an established fact "which no reasonable person can doubt," finally
found him guilty. Zündel has already won. It remains for him to make it known to
Canada and to the entire world. The media blackout of the 1988 trial was almost
complete. Jewish organizations campaigned vigorously for such a blackout, and even
went so far as to say that they did not want an impartial account of the trial. They did
not want any account of it at all. The paradox is that the only publication which
reported relatively honestly about the trial was the Canadian Jewish News.
Ernst Zündel and the Leuchter report have left a profound mark on history; both will
be remembered for many years to come.
Today I would add that to me Ernst Zündel's fate appears both more tragic and more
enviable than in 1988. It is even more tragic because I fear that the leaders of the
world Jewish community will not leave any respite to a man of this breadth, able not
only to discern what he calls truth, freedom and justice but also to struggle with so
much skill and courage for that truth, that freedom and that justice. In a general way, I
am pessimistic for the future of revisionists. But I am optimistic for the future of
revisionism: the work initiated by Paul Rassinier and crowned by the brilliant work of
the American Arthur Robert Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, has known,
thanks to Ernst Zündel, such a great expansion that no obstacle will be able to impede
its course. And it is in this sense that, notwithstanding everything, one can envy the
fate of Ernst Zündel.
Criminal Prosecution of 'Holocaust Denial' (continues on page 16)
by Barbara Kulaszka
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