By Peter A. Lindemann
During the last two years, a number of books and articles
have appeared in public on the subject of colloidal silver. Some of these
include: the Bio-Tech News Special Report, "Hi-Yo Silver"; Colloidal
Silver, The Natural Antibiotic Alternative, by Zane Baranowski; Colloidal
Silver, by Tonita d'Raye; and "Banishing Disease with Three Nine Volt
Batteries", parts I & II, by Mark Metcalf. Literally hundreds of other
newsletters and small publications have repeated the information in these
articles without checking the content for accuracy.
The appearance of these materials two years ago was the
first wave of public education concerning colloidal silver. Today, most
Health Food Stores carry and sell several brands of colloidal silver, scores
of MLM companies have colloidal silver products in their lines, and prices
are starting to drop. While it is still possible to spend as much as $10/oz.
for colloidal silver in Health Food Stores, prices can be as low as $5/oz.
Some mail order catalogs sell it for as little as $2.50/oz., and I have
seen small classified ads selling it for under $1/oz. The trend is definitely
toward a lower price.
One of the phenomena driving the price down is the appearance
of the devices that allow people to make their own colloidal silver. At
this time, (Spring 1997) the cottage industry of colloidal silver generators
is starting to penetrate the larger market. This is starting to cause alarm
in high places. One major commercial manufacturer of colloidal silver has
recently issued a warning statement to its customers, alerting them to
the dangers of the "inferior quality" of colloidal silver made by these
devices. CNN and other major media have also tried to scare the public
away from colloidal silver by showing a blue-skinned person who "suffers"
from Argyria, a cosmetic condition caused by the build-up of silver compounds
under the skin. Even JAMA (The Journal of the American Medical Association)
has run articles warning of Argyria and the toxicities associated with
"colloidal silver proteins." On January 16, 1997, new labeling guidelines
concerning colloidal silver went into effect, issued by the FDA. Other
FDA rulings on "safety and effectiveness" are still pending. With all of
these developments, it doesn't take a rocket scientist to see that the
whole situation around colloidal silver is heating up!
The purpose of this article is to raise the level of public
knowledge to a higher degree of accuracy. Knowledge is power, and the public
needs to know the truth about colloidal silver.
The first thing people need to know is that there are
at least FOUR different products on the market being called COLLOIDAL SILVER.
The first type of product is the classic, original kind,
usually called "electro-colloidal silver." This product is made either
by the "electro-arc" method in deionized water, or by the "low voltage
electrolysis" method in distilled water. This product is usually found
in concentrations between 3-5 ppm (parts per million), but sometimes as
high as 100 ppm. Properly made, this product consists of microscopic particles
of pure, elemental silver suspended in water, with no other elements present.
Each particle of silver carries a POSITIVE electrical charge. Colloidal
silver made this way appears either transparent-clear or transparent-light
The second is called "mild silver protein." This product
chemically binds microscopic particles of silver to a protein molecule.
It is usually found in concentrations between 20-40 ppm. Its appearance
may be transparent-clear or amber.
The third are "silver salts." These products can be made
either chemically or electro-chemically and usually create a form of silver
that DISSOLVES in the water. Concentrations range between 50-500 ppm. Its
appearance is transparent-clear. The silver particles do carry a POSITIVE
electrical charge, but almost invariably, these products contain other
elements or compounds other than silver.
The fourth is sometimes referred to as "powdered silver."
This product was developed by the Russians and is made when a pure silver
wire is rapidly disintegrated by an high voltage electrical discharge,
similar to an old photographic flash bulb. The microscopic silver dust
is collected and either dissolved in water or added to salves and creams
for topical use. Concentrations range from 100-500 ppm.
All of these products work, to one degree or another,
as a broad spectrum germicide because they all contain microscopic particles
of SILVER. That said, it is important to understand a number of things:
1) all of these products are not "colloidal suspensions" of silver, 2)
these products DO NOT all behave the same in the body or in laboratory
tests, 3) effectiveness and dosage varies from product to product, 4) quality
varies from product to product and from batch to batch with the same product,
and 5) they are NOT all uniformly safe and non-toxic. There are no industry
standards that manufacturers voluntarily follow to assure quality control
and there is no governmental regulation of the industry.
On the other hand, there are millions and millions of
satisfied colloidal silver users who would like to have continued, free
access to the product, and a growing number of manufacturers entering the
market with a wide variety of new products.
The critical factors that make a "good" colloidal silver
product are particle size, purity, concentration, and cost. The only way
to authoritatively determine the first three is by laboratory analysis.
The best way to determine particle size is by electron microscope photograph.
The best way to determine purity is by mass spectroscopy or by x-ray defraction
analysis. The best way to determine concentration is by chemical analysis
of total dissolved solids. The cost of the product should be calculated
in reference to the total quantity of silver present, such as: $5.00/oz
of 100 ppm is equal to 25¢/oz of 5 ppm (the first has 20 times more
silver by volume and costs 20 times more by volume.)
The simplest way to control
these factors is to make the colloidal silver for yourself. By doing this,
you will not know exactly what is there unless you do laboratory testing,
but you will have a pretty good idea. Without laboratory testing of commercial
products, you don't know much more, because the quality control batch to
batch is loose with most brands. Also, by making it yourself, you will
end up with real "colloidal" silver, which is the product referred to in
most of the literature.
If you are already making your
own colloidal silver, please pay special attention to this section because
much of the information you now have may be incorrect.
The simplest way to make real colloidal silver at home
is by the "low voltage electrolysis" method. A few batteries may be connected
to some silver electrodes and placed in a glass of water. This process
will cause small particles of silver to be sintered off the electrodes
and enter the water. This deceptively simple method is very easy to do
WRONG, and most people who are making colloidal silver at home are making
an inferior product.
In The Water
When you do this yourself, it is very important to control
the purity of the water, because the purity of the water is one of the
factors that controls how small the particles of silver will be. Only high
quality DISTILLED water should be used. You cannot use purified or filtered
water because it still has too many dissolved minerals in it. You cannot
use deionized water because it doesn't conduct electricity well enough
to start the reaction. Distilled water is just perfect to start the reaction
slowly and let it proceed properly.
Another variable that influences particle size is the
water temperature. The warmer the water, the faster the reaction will take
place, and the smaller the particles will be.
Pass The Salt
Regardless of what anyone has said to the contrary, silver
chloride will ALWAYS form if any amount of salt is present. Never add
anything to the water that will make the water conduct electricity better.
Never add salt, sea salt, or Celtic sea salt to the distilled water
because the salt puts chloride ions in the water that react with the silver
to form silver chloride. Another serious problem arises when making colloidal
silver with salt in the water. The presence of salt increases the electrical
conductivity of the water and this dramatically speeds up the reaction.
As the reaction speeds up under these circumstances, it produces larger
particles. The product produced is invariably cloudy-white in appearance.
Actual electron microscope photographs of this material show silver particles
in the range of .05 to .15 microns. These particles are TOO LARGE to form
a colloidal suspension, and the proof is that the material will settle
to the bottom of the container in a very short period of time. Therefore,
this home brewed "colloidal silver" product may be dangerous to consume
internally for TWO reasons: the presence of silver chloride and the production
of large particles.
Best Is Yet To Come
The very best voltage for the reaction is 30 volts, because
the electrodes run the cleanest at this voltage. If you have a small power
supply, set it for 30 volts. If you are running on batteries, it is best
to start at 36 volts (three 12 volt batteries or four 9 volt batteries)
and let the batteries drain down from there. Holding the silver electrodes
at a uniform distance away from each other yields a better product.
When 30 volts is applied across silver electrodes held
uniformly apart in distilled water, a totally different event happens.
First, the reaction proceeds very slowly. Often, for the first 15 minutes
nothing seems to be happening. Then finally, a faint yellow mist will begin
to form. Within a few minutes, the reaction will speed up, but the particles
produced will be a golden-yellow as viewed with a flashlight. Using this
method, 8 ounces of distilled water at room temperature can be made into
a 3-5 ppm colloidal silver preparation in 20-25 minutes. Made this way,
colloidal silver can cost under 10¢/oz to make. Electron microscope
photographs of this product show a silver particle size in the range .001
to .004 microns. During manufacturing, the particle cloud is a golden-yellow.
These particles will hang in the water at the level they are produced,
and for the most part, will not fall to the bottom of the glass. This is
what a "colloidal" preparation of silver looks like. After the particles
disperse, the water will look clear again, but may turn a light yellow
if the concentration is high enough and after the particles have become
There has been a fair amount
of controversy in the public literature concerning the appearance of the
"yellow" color. A lot of well meaning people have told me that "yellow
is bad", "silver isn't yellow", "yellow is sulfur contamination", "yellow
is iron contamination", and lots of other things. I finally found what
I believe to be the answer to this question in a book titled Practical
Colloid Chemistry, published in London in 1926. In the section on the
"Colours of Colloidal Metals", sub-section on the "Polychromism of silver
solutions" on page 69, I found the following statements: "The continuous
change in colour from yellow to blue corresponds to a change in the absorption
maximum of the shorter to longer wave-lengths with a decreasing degree
of dispersion. This is a general phenomenon in colloid chemistry illustrating
the relation between colour and degree of dispersion." This section goes
on to describe the colors that show up in a wide variety of colloidal metal
solutions. Interestingly, they ALL have a yellow phase. For true "electro-colloidal"
silver, the particle size range that can appear yellow is .01 to .001 microns
(10 to 100 angstroms) because that is the size of silver particle that
best absorbs the indigo light, leaving only its inverse color, yellow,
to be observed. The final transparent-yellow appearance only shows up after
the particles have become evenly dispersed.
Brown Glass Bottle
Once you have gone to the trouble of making colloidal
silver particles as small as .001 microns, it is important to protect them.
The particles stay away from each other in suspension because they each
have a positive electrical charge (+) and these "like charges" repel each
other. Anything that can strip this charge off the particles will degrade
the quality of the colloidal silver by a process called re-coagulation,
where the particles clump together again to form larger aggregates. Ultraviolet
light from the sun and many plastics can cause this process to occur. Therefore,
colloidal silver is best stored in dark, glass containers. The two kinds
of glass container that are suitable for this are the dark amber and the
The biggest "secret" about the manufacture of high quality
colloidal silver is that it is nearly impossible to standardize the product.
Silver is apparently reactive to a number of natural forces that have yet
to be identified. Even when the voltage, the water, and the water temperature
are identical, different batches will proceed at different rates on different
days. The speed of the reaction can vary by over 100% depending on the
day. On "normal" days, the reaction is proceeding well by 15 minutes, with
a visible cloud of particles. On "slow days" it may take 30 minutes before
any visible production of yellow particles begins. Because of this variation,
it is always wise to observe the reaction with a strong flashlight so you
can see how quickly the reaction is happening. Once the yellow cloud starts
forming, time the batch for 5 more minutes. This is the best way to standardize
your home brewed colloidal silver.
Another big controversy surrounds the question of whether
this method produces "colloidal" silver or "ionic" silver. Most people
have been told that colloidal silver is "good" and ionic silver is "bad."
Once again, the truth might be unpopular. The word "colloidal" refers to
a condition where, in this case, a solid particle is SUSPENDED in a liquid
(silver in water). The solid particles are too large to be considered DISSOLVED,
but are too small to be filtered out. This colloidal condition is most
easily detected by what is called the "Tyndall effect", where a narrow
beam of light is shined through the liquid to produce a cone shaped dispersion
of the light. The particles so illuminated also exhibit a random, zig-zag
activity called "Brownian motion" when observed under a microscope. When
something is completely dissolved, both the Brownian and Tyndall effects
The word "ionic" refers to a condition where a particle
has an electric charge. In the case of "electro-colloidal" silver, this
electric charge is ALWAYS positive. Silver will not form a negatively charged
ion. So, the truth is that electro-colloidal silver is BOTH colloidal and
ionic. It is considered colloidal because of the particle SIZE and it is
considered ionic because of the particle CHARGE. In fact, most of the biological
studies suggest it is colloidal silver's ionic characteristics that make
it such a good germicide. It is also interesting to note that the old chemistry
books make no distinction between the colloidal and ionic states of the
The quality of your finished product depends entirely
on the purity of the water you start with and the purity of the silver
you start with. Most of the current literature suggests that only 99.9999%
pure silver can be used. Most home brew systems use 99.9% pure silver.
So, what is the difference? To find out, I contacted Academy Metals, a
company in Albuquerque, New Mexico, that produces commercial silver. The
total allowable impurities in 99.9% (.999 fine) silver is 1000 ppm or 1
part in 1000. These impurities and their maximums are 1) Copper, 800 ppm,
2) Lead, 250 ppm, 3) Iron, 200 ppm, and 4) Bismuth, 10 ppm. This product
is readily available in wire form and costs about $3.00 above the market
(spot) price of silver. When this product is used to make electro-colloidal
silver at a concentration of 5 ppm, the total impurities from the silver
drop to 4 ppb (parts per billion) copper, 1.25 ppb lead, 1 ppb iron, .05
ppb bismuth. With all allowable impurities at these low levels, there is
a reasonable argument for not being concerned. Still, sometimes small things
make a big difference. 99.99% silver (.9999 fine) has total allowable impurities
of 100 ppm of the same metals in the same ratios, and costs (in wire form)
between $50-$90 above the spot price of silver. 99.999% silver (.99999
fine) has total allowable impurities of 10 ppm, and in wire form costs
about $250 above the spot price. 99.9999% silver, in wire form, costs more
than gold and is very difficult to find commercially.
In one sample of 10 ppm colloidal silver we sent out for
total analysis (made with 99.9% silver electrodes), the primary impurities
found were: 1) Sodium, 470 ppb, 2) Calcium, 260 ppb, 3) Manganese, 70 ppb,
4) Potassium, 50 ppb, and 5) Magnesium, 24 ppb. Since none of these impurities
could have come from the silver, it suggests that the purity of the water
should be of greater concern to the person making their own colloidal silver,
than spending extra money on purer silver.
The concentration of silver
in the water is usually measured in parts per million, or ppm. While this
is the standard convention, ppm is a "ratio" and not an indicator of quantity.
When a laboratory tests colloidal silver for concentration, they report
the findings in milligrams per liter (mg/L). Milligrams per liter is an
actual measurement of weight per volume, and therefore is a real quantity
measurement. In the metric system, one liter of water weighs 1000 grams,
and one milligram is one thousandth (1/1000) of a gram, so 1 mg/L is the
same as 1 ppm, as long as we are talking about water. Silver weighs a little
more than water, but the equivalence is very close, and the terms are often
used interchangeably. With this in mind, we can calculate that one teaspoon
of 5 ppm colloidal silver has about 25 mcg (micrograms) of silver in it.
In 1940, R. A. Kehoe reported that under normal circumstances,
the average daily intake of fruits and vegetables would provide between
50-100 mcg of silver as a trace element. Since that time, the commercial
farm soils of this country have become extremely deficient in trace minerals.
Although I do not have authoritative figures for silver, according to the
Earth Summit Report, issued in 1992, the levels of soil based minerals
in North America have dropped over 85% in the last 100 years. Assuming
that our ancestor's diet used to contain trace silver, and that our diet
probably has greatly reduced levels, there is a reasonable argument for
supplementing with colloidal silver. Two teaspoons of 5 ppm colloidal silver
provides about 50 mcg of silver and could be considered a "nutritional"
amount, if taken on a daily basis. Any amount above four teaspoons a day
or 100 mcg should be considered a "therapeutic" amount. That said, it should
not be assumed that electro-colloidal silver is equivalent to or has the
same metabolic effect as receiving trace silver from dietary plant sources.
But since there are very few plant sources of trace silver available today,
colloidal silver is probably the best substitute. If you want to experiment
with taking colloidal silver for an extended period of time, stay within
the amounts considered to be nutritional. If you want to experiment with
larger doses, do so with caution, and only for a day or two at a time.
Silver can act as a heavy metal poison in the body. It
can also act as a trace mineral nutrient. The difference is in the particle
size, NOT the concentration. Colloidal silver with a particle size of .001
microns has particles 100 times smaller than a preparation of silver with
a particle size of .1 microns. The smaller the particle, the less likely
it will behave as a toxin. Typically, the worst toxic reaction from metallic
silver, cited in the medical literature, is a condition called Argyria.
Argyria is primarily a cosmetic condition characterized by a permanent,
bluish discoloration of the skin. Argyria causes no physical discomfort,
and does not have any other known side effects. Your skin just looks bluish-gray.
In fact, the term "blue bloods," in reference to the royal families of
Europe, probably refers to a mild, argyrial condition caused by the constant
eating of food from silver place settings. It is interesting to note, however,
that there has never been a case of Argyria reported from the use of electro-colloidal
silver, free of salts or other impurities.
Argyria, while not being a deadly condition, certainly
is undesirable. It is usually caused by the massive intake of silver salts,
such as silver nitrate, silver sulfate, and silver chloride. To determine
just how toxic these substances are, I contacted the Agency for Toxic Substances
and Disease Registry through their on-line information service at (http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles).
All of these silver salts are talked about as toxins, but the only consequence
of even high exposure in humans that is listed is Argyria. EPA issues a
"control code" for each toxic substance it tracks that can cause human
illness. Silver nitrate and silver sulfate have control codes, but silver
chloride does not. I received essentially the same information when I spoke
with Dr. Eidson at the Department of Epidemiology in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Apparently, the government thinks silver and silver compounds are toxins
that essentially have no significant toxic effects other than the ability
to discolor your skin.
Looking just a little deeper into the situation, I pulled
out Lectures on Homeopathic Materia Medica by J.T. Kent. In the
section on the use of metallic silver as a homeopathic remedy, there are
7½ pages of indications (symptoms) that include actions on the nerves
and cartilage, as well as increased tendency toward emotional outbursts
and mental excitability. In fact, the list of symptoms is rather extensive.
So, exposure to silver may not kill you or cause organic disease, but that
may not mean there is no toxicity. Apparently, silver has the ability to
act as a subtle irritant as well as lodge in certain tissues. This suggests
that taking colloidal silver every day may not be a good idea for people
who already have these symptoms.
In a study done, in part, by the Institute of Microbiology
in Rome, Italy, and published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology,
in December, 1992, various forms of silver were tested for their ability
to kill micro-organisms. Pure electro-colloidal silver out performed silver
nitrate, silver chloride, and silver sulfadiazine as a broad spectrum germicide.
For all classes of bacteria, fungus, and mold samples tested, pure electro-colloidal
silver worked better, and at much lower concentrations. They concluded
that any additives reduced the effectiveness of the pure silver
ion; the silver salts being as much as 100 times less effective.
Electro-colloidal silver's effectiveness as a broad-spectrum
germicide is directly related to the number and size of the particles.
The same volume of space taken up by one silver particle .1 microns in
size, will hold about 10,000 silver particles .001 microns in size. This
reduction in particle size not only allows for a greater distribution of
the silver, but it also greatly increases the total surface area of silver
available for interacting with the environment. These, plus the stability
of the electrical charge, are the most important factors when considering
the effectiveness of colloidal silver.
While silver has been shown to be a very effective germicide,
killing gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, molds,
and viruses in laboratory experiments, this does not mean that it will
invariably cure disease conditions in the body caused by these organisms.
Colloidal silver is a fantastic adjunct to the home, but it is by no means
a "cure-all". The biggest obstacle to using colloidal silver as a "home
remedy" is the lack of information in the public domain on how to use it
effectively in any given situation. The FDA has tested colloidal silver
extensively and found that different micro-organisms succumb to its action
at a wide variety of concentrations and exposure times. If any of this
information entered the public domain, the FDA would consider their own
research "unsubstantiated medical claims" and reason enough to classify
colloidal silver as a "new drug." The "new drug" classification would be
"required" because "new use protocols" had been developed that did not
exist before 1938.
Here is an example of the problem. It is now estimated
that one in four women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. I
have spoken to two women who claim to have cured themselves of breast cancer
with colloidal silver. They were both diagnosed by biopsy. After the diagnosis,
they took 2 teaspoons of colloidal silver a day until their surgery. One
took a home-made product, the other took a silver protein product. In both
cases, the biopsy of the removed breast tissue and lymph nodes was cancer
free. The question is, will colloidal silver work this well for all
cases of breast cancer? Probably not, but in the current legal and political
environment, we may never know. No pharmaceutical company can control or
monopolize ownership of colloidal silver, so none of them will ever fund
the testing, which currently costs over $10 Million and takes 10 years.
FDA says if you claim that colloidal silver cures breast cancer, that would
classify it as a new drug, and the public cannot be given access to new
drugs without proper testing. Using the FDA model, it could cost the public
$1Billion to "prove" to the FDA what the FDA already knows about colloidal
silver. Politics has definitely entered this picture. FDA does not want
to be exposed as an enforcer for the drug companies, or be seen as an agency
clearly not acting in the public's best interest. While these ideas are
not new to some of us, it would be a startling revelation if a large portion
of the population began thinking this way. FDA would certainly like to
avoid this "public relations" embarrassment. The fact is, FDA has never
spent our tax dollars discovering something important, and then published
their findings for the benefit of the public at-large; especially when
it involved something that was powerful, safe, and inexpensive for the
public to make for themselves. Obviously, empowering the population to
be self-reliant and frugal in relation to their own healthcare is not the
Colloidal silver clearly has some extraordinary capabilities
and hundreds of legitimate uses. But without standardization, quality control,
and extensive medical testing, the public will never know how best to use
colloidal silver in a given situation. FDA may yet try to restrict public
access to colloidal silver, claiming it is unsafe, even though they know
how "safe and effective" it CAN BE when used properly. In the absence of
the release of this authoritative testing data, the public is left just
experimenting and groping for the answers. A big fight over the public's
access to colloidal silver may be looming because the cost of healthcare
in this country is out of control, and the public is looking for inexpensive
solutions that work. In that sense, colloidal silver could be "just what
the doctor ordered."
Colloidal silver is apparently able to kill nearly all
micro-organisms, including the "friendly flora" your digestive system needs
for proper function. I have spoken with hundreds of people who have taken
colloidal silver on a daily basis and have noticed no digestive upset,
even after prolonged use. I have also spoken to two individuals who reported
digestive upset after taking colloidal silver one time. So, in my experience,
the die-off of friendly flora is possible, but rare.
There are a number of strategies that can reduce the probability
of digestive interactions. The simplest one is to swish the colloidal silver
around in your mouth for 30 seconds before swallowing. This promotes an
absorption of the colloidal silver into the body away from the intestinal
tract. Another strategy is to take smaller doses, multiple times per day,
or with meals. Either way, if you do experience a die-off of friendly flora,
they can be re-populated by taking any of the acidophilus products on the
Septic tanks are like your home's intestinal tract. They
only work when populated with friendly flora. If you live in a rural area
with your house on a septic system and you are making your own colloidal
silver, make sure you don't throw a lot of it down the sink or your septic
system may stop working properly. This problem can be handled by using
a product like RID-X periodically, which is a good idea anyway.
Colloidal silver is an extraordinary product. It can enhance
your health and the health of your family in hundreds of ways. Everyone
should learn how to make high quality colloidal silver, and have that capability
in their home, in case the regulators restrict its availability at some
point in the future. This could be the best "health insurance" policy you
If you buy one of the colloidal silver makers on the market,
make sure it can make the "yellow" particles. When you make it yourself,
make sure you are making the "yellow" particles. If you have any doubts
about the quality of the product you are making or buying, you can send
samples to any of the following laboratories for definitive testing.
For particle size testing with electron microscope,
contact: EMS Laboratories, 117 West Bellevue Drive, Pasadena, CA 91105
(818) 568-4065 Price will be under $200 per sample.
For concentration test (mg/L) of total dissolved solids,
contact: Associated Laboratories, 806 North Batavia, Orange, CA 92668
(714) 771-6900 Call for prices.
For elemental analysis, including "Tyndall effect"
and "precipitation" test, contact: Kimball Laboratories, 600 East 11800
South, Draper, UT 84020 (801) 571-3695 Call for prices.
These companies are busy professionals who have no idea
I am listing them in this article. Please don't waste their time unless
you plan to submit samples for testing with payment.
Agency for Toxic Substances and
Disease Registry, on-line information service: (http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles)
Kehoe, R. A. et al, 1940. J.
Kent, J.T. Lectures on Homeopathic
Materia Medica, Jain Publishing Co. New Delhi, India, reprint 1982.
Michaelis, L. The Effects of
Ions in Colloidal Systems, Williams & Williams Co. Baltimore, MD,
All information posted on this web site is
the opinion of the author and is provided for educational purposes only.
It is not to be construed as medical advice. Only a licensed medical doctor
can legally offer medical advice in the United States. Consult the healer
of your choice for medical care and advice.